GOLESTĀN-E SAʿDI

GOLESTĀN-E SAʿDI , probably the single most influential work of prose in the Persian tradition, completed in 656/1258 by Mošarref-al-Din Moṣleḥ, known as Shaikh Saʿdi of Shiraz (for the confusion about his name, see Ṣafā, III/1, pp. 584-614). It was dedicated to the Salghurid Atabeg in Fārs, Moẓaffar-al-Din Abu Bakr b. Saʿd b. Zangi (G51), and his son, Saʿd (G54), as well as the vizier ...

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BŪSTĀN

      BŪSTĀN in early sources referred to as Saʿdī-nāma, a moralistic and anecdotal verse work consisting of some 4,100 maṯnawī couplets by Shaikh Moṣleḥ-al-Dīn Saʿdī, completed in 655/1257. The date is given by Saʿdī himself in his preamble, and from some indi¬cations in two verses it may be surmised that the work was in fact completed between 2 Šawwāl/13 October ...

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EMERSON, RALPH WALDO, distinguished American transcendentalist, philosopher, and poet (b. 25 May 1803, Boston, Mass.; d. 27 April 1882, Concord). Only two other major Western authors have contributed as much to the cultivation of Persian poetry as Emerson: Goethe (q.v.) in the early years of the 19th century and Edward FitzGerald (q.v.) in the later years. Equally notable has been the reverse influence ...

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OLEARIUS, ADAM (b. Aschersleben, 1599; d. Gottorp, 23 February 1671), German author, secretary to the Holstein mission to Persia (1635-39), court mathematician and librarian at Holstein-Gottorp; noted for the detailed account of his travels in Russia and Persia during the reign of the Safavid Shah Ṣafi (r. 1629-1642), his contributions to the cartography of Persia, and the first unmediated translation ...

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